2019 Gender 2: The State of Inequality

In the last lecture, we looked at what gender is, how it is different from sex, and how it is at least partly a “social construct,” meaning, a reality created by society and culture. All social constructs serve some purpose, but they can also create very adverse “brute facts.”

Big Question to Answer: Just how much gender inequality is there in the world and what does it look like?

One of the “brute facts” related to how the female gender is constructed is the inequality, the vast difference between the lives of women and men. While we might understand that in the abstract, what does it mean on a personal level? Here’s a story of someone facing the brute fact of gender inequality:

Intro article: The Worth of a Girl

How common is Mwanahamisi’s experience? It is undoubtedly different from the lives of typical modern Japanese or American young women. To answer that, we need a lot of excellent data to understand what is happening in the world today. Individual stories are critical of course –they make abstract issues human. They are not enough, however, since they may not tell us much about the bigger picture.

A better picture comes from what is called “Big Data.” This is information from large sets of data that can be analyzed by computers to show patterns and trends that are often hidden.

This “Big Data,” though, is often difficult to understand, even for experts in the field. Interactive graphics (from reliable sources!) are great tools to help us understand the state of gender inequality worldwide.

Exploring “Big Data” of Gender through Information Graphics

[ Adapted from 7 Data Visualizations that Opened the World’s Eyes to Gender Inequality by Katja Iversen, at medium.com ]

1 Gender Equality in Schools Decreases Child Marriage
Source: Gapminder

Mwanahamisi was lucky to escape a young marriage, but many of her friends and family were not. And the way she escaped showed something remarkable. The education that young women receive is directly related to how soon they marry. The more school, the later the marriage. While this is not the only factor (especially not in Japan!), the trend is pretty clear.

Use Gapminder to see the changes over time, as well as comparisons between countries as of 2005. (Note, this is the most current data that Gapminder has.)

Challenge 1: What is the data for your country? Which country has the earliest first marriage? How many years of schooling do young women in that country receive? Which country has the oldest age of first marriage? Why do you think that is?

2. What’s Your Pay Gap?
Source: The Wall Street Journal

In the US, women make, on average, 78% of what men earn for the same jobs. Globally, the rate is 50%. This interactive graphic looks at the pay gap in 442 occupations in the US.

Challenge 2: Use the graph to find the pay gap in the field (or similar field) to the one you hope to enter after graduation. Which fields have the smallest pay gap? Which fields have the largest? What could explain this situation?

3. Abortion Rights Around the World
Source: The Guardian

Abortion laws vary greatly around the world. While only six countries completely ban (make illegal) abortion, there are many places where abortion is greatly restricted. This includes several parts of the United States. Many people, including the United Nations, consider access to abortion part of the reproductive rights of women.

Lack of access to safe abortion can lead to women trying unsafe and hazardous methods and is a leading cause of death during pregnancy.

Challenge 3: Using the chart, find which countries ban all abortion. Then, find out information about your country. Under what circumstances is abortion permitted in your country? What was the “Maternal Mortality Rate” in your country in 2010? Which countries have the highest “Maternal Mortality Rate”? What might explain this?

4 How Nations Stack Up on Gender Equality
Source: The World Economic Forum

This final information graphic shows the gaps between women and men across four key areas — economics, politics, health, and education — to determine which are the best and worst countries for gender equality

This data comes from the 2016 report by “World Economic Forum.” It covers 144 countries and has eleven years of data.

Challenge 4: Which are the top five countries overall? Do any of them surprise you? How about the bottom five? Any surprises? Next, which of the four areas — economics, politics, health, and education — has seen the least amount of growth globally over the past decade? Why do you think this is so? Finally, find the information for your country about those four areas. What is your comment about your country’s data?

Leave your answers to challenges 1 ~ 4 in the reply below. Due before next class. [Note: While each of these information graphics is accessible through a smart phone, they are much easier to navigate on a larger device, like a tablet or a noteboook computer.]

23 thoughts on “2019 Gender 2: The State of Inequality

  1. Challenge1
    1. 28.6
    2. Niger 17.6
    3. 0.685
    4. Sweden 32.4
    5. I heard that Sweden is equality to people, so they can decide marrige timing when they like.
    Challenge2
    1. Social and human service assistants Women:$23.287 Men:$37.344
    2. Parking lot attendants Women:$23.287 Men:$25.584
    3. Physicians and surgeons Women:$135.169 Men:209.596
    4. I think women doctors are small number, so their pay is low.
    Challenge3
    1. Holly see, Malta, Chile, Dominican Rep., El salvador, Nicaragua
    2. Save life, Physical health, Rape/incest, Economic/social reasons
    3. 5
    4. Central African Rep. 890, Sierra Leone 890
    5. Because of sikness.
    Challenge4
    1. No.1 Iceland 87.4% No.2 Finland 84.5% No.3 Norway 84.2% No.4 Sweden 81.6% No.5 Rwanda 80.0%
    2. Even No.1 country, the rate is 87.4%. Not 100%.
    3. No.1 Yemen 51.6% No.2 pakistan 55.6% No.3 Syria 56.7% No.4 Saudi Arabia 58.3% No.5 Chad 58.7%
    4. Alomst the bottom five country located nearly Arabia.
    5. Politicial
    6. Actually, there are a few women in the Diet. I have never seen the woman prime minister in Japan since I was born.
    7. Economics 58% Politics 10% Health 97% Education 99%
    8. Medical skill in Japan is high quality. So I can be presuaded health date. And Japan takes godd care of education. In economics, there is a idea that “Men works in society, women protect in theire home”. So the date apprear from this idea. I surepurised politics date. It’s too low. To think from this date, sometimes I see working women in politician, but she will not higer post.

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  2. Challenge 1)
    1. 28.6% at the age of first marriage, and 1.01% in the ratio of girls/boys in school
    2. Niger
    3. 0.685%
    4. Sweden
    5. The reason I think would be is because Sweden offers free education to both girls and boys.
    Challenge 2)
    1. $71,500
    2. Counter attendants, cafeteria, food concession, and coffee shop
    3. Physicians and surgeons
    4. The reason I think would be is that because physicians and surgeons are being in responsible for someone’s health and it takes a lot of courage and knowledge to be able to cure someone.
    Challenge 3)
    1. South Sudan, Antigua & Barbuda, Chile, Dominican Republic, Holy See, Malta, El Salvador, Nicaragua
    2. Save a life, Physical Health, Rape/incest, Economic/social reason
    3. 5 per 100,000 live birth
    4. The central African Republic, and Sierra Leone
    5. I think it’s because these countries don’t have access to proper medication which is why there are women who die from doing an unsafe abortion there.
    Challenge 4)
    1. Iceland, Finland, Norway, Sweden, Rwanda
    2. Iceland, because according to the graph women estimated earned income is almost 40% lower than men.
    3. Yemen, Pakistan, Syria, Saudi Arabia, Chad
    4. Yemen, because on the graph that I saw on the website that I researched through about this, it seems that they put women first, mostly but women in parliament and years with a female head of state were written 0.
    5. Economic 58%, Politics 10%, Health 98%, Education 99%
    6. About health, I think it’s because the Japanese government gives all the citizens health insurance. And in fact, there are two types of insurance here in Japan. Social Health Insurance is given to people who work full-time. And the other one is the National Health Insurance which designed for people who are not eligible to work full-time.

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  3. 1. Gender Equality in Schools Decreases Child Marriage
    Challenge 1:
    • What is the data for your country?
    Indonesia
    Age at 1st marriage is 22.1 years old, ratio girls/boys in school is 0.975 and the women from 15 to 44 years old are in school for only 7.7 years (finish elementary school but not finish middle-school, our system is 6-3-3 (6 years in elementary school, 3 years in middle-school, and 3 years in high-school), gender ratio of mean years in school is women 89.6% men.
    • Which country has the earliest first marriage? How many years of schooling do young women in that country receive?
    Niger (17.6 years old). 1.52 years of schooling for women age 15 – 24 years old.
    • Which country has the oldest age of first marriage? Why do you think that is?
    Jamaica (33.2 years old). I think it’s because of the culture and norms there. I’m not fond of Jamaica, so I search it on google. According to jamaica-gleaner.com, psychologist Dr Leahcim Semaj believes the delay in Jamaicans getting married is that they take marriage more seriously. They also have a very different point of view regarding marriage. They may live together and bear children before they officially get married, and it’s a quite common practice and also acceptable to society there. They have three-tier structure of marriage, first is firstborn children are born in visiting unions, the second is common-law union where they live together and bear a number of children, and the last is legal marriage. So it is reasonable if Jamaica has the oldest age of ‘first marriage’. And also due to economic stability and having the resources to get married. Jamaicans want to marry in style, so rather than little registry wedding, they prefer big-splash wedding.

    2. What’s Your Pay Gap?
    Challenge 2:
    • Use the graph to find the pay gap in the field (or similar field) to the one you hope to enter after graduation.
    Accountant. Women working as accountants and auditors earn 73% of their male counterparts on average.
    • Which fields have the smallest pay gap?
    Biomedical engineers. Women working as biomedical engineers earn 100% of their male counterparts on average. Men earn $84,474 while women earn $84,167.
    • Which fields have the largest?
    Paper goods machine setters and operators. Women working in this field only earn 54% of their male counterparts on average. Men earn $46,495 while women earn $25,576.
    • What could explain this situation?
    To explain about biomedical engineers, biomedical engineering had the highest percentage of female engineering M.S. degree recipients in the United States of all engineering disciplines, according to the American Society for Engineering Education. The percentage is 40.9 for B.S. degrees in 2015. With a lot of women getting degrees and working in this field, of course, the pay would be more balanced too.
    Paper goods machine setters and operators set up, operate, or tend paper goods machines that perform a variety of functions, such as converting, sawing, corrugating, banding, wrapping, boxing, stitching, forming, or sealing paper or paperboard sheets into products. These are usually done by men, so there are more men in this field than women. It’s not important whether one finishes high school or not, they can get accepted in this job. With that level of education, most women will prefer other jobs such as fast food workers, shopkeeper, etc. That’s why the pay gap is highest, because even men don’t earn much, so women earn even lower because they probably lack some capabilities needed in this field.
    Overall, the pay gap is higher the more that field earn. From the graphic, the gap can be seen as very high even though the percentage is not as high as the others. It’s because of the difference in total of earnings. The highest in graphic looks like physicians and surgeons, but in fact, the women in that field still earn 64% of their male counterparts on average, so the pay gap is not as wide as the paper goods machine setters and operators. But in physicians and surgeons field, men earn $209,596 and women earn $135,169. In total, they earn a lot more than paper goods machine setters and operators.

    3. Abortion Rights around the World
    Challenge 3:
    • Using the chart, find which countries ban all abortion.
    Holy See, Malta, Chile, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Nicaragua
    • Then, find out information about your country. Under what circumstances is abortion permitted in your country? What was the “Maternal Mortality Rate” in your country in 2010?
    Indonesia permits abortion to safe a woman’s life, after a rape/incest, and because of foetal impairment. The “Maternal Mortality Rate” in 2010 is 220 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births.
    • Which countries have the highest “Maternal Mortality Rate”? What might explain this?
    Central African Republic and Sierra Leone. Both in Africa continent. The two countries’ maternal mortality rate in 2010 is 890 deaths per 100,000 live births. According to borgenproject.org, one of the major contributors to the mortality rate is a lack of accessible health centers. High teenage pregnancy rates increases the risk of complications. Long distances to health centers increases the impact of those complications. Even when women are able to reach a health center or clinic they are ill prepared to deal with the complications. Due to the inaccessibility of viable and prepared health centers, many women opt to give birth at home. Women from poorer communities are more likely to opt for home-birth in response to lack of transportation or qualified health facilities. With less than two licensed mid-wives per 10,000 people, home-births come with increased risks of complications and death. African countries tend to lack a lot in maternal health and have a high rate in maternal mortality rate, but Central African Rep. and Sierra Leone have the highest maternal mortality rate.
    4. How Nations Stack Up on Gender Equality
    Challenge 4:
    • Which are the top five countries overall? Do any of them surprise you?
    Iceland (87.4%), Finland (84.5%), Norway (84.2%), Sweden (81.6%), Rwanda (80.0%). Yes, Rwanda surprises me.
    • How about the bottom five? Any surprises?
    Yemen (51.6%), Pakistan (55.6%), Syria (56.7%), Saudi Arabia (58.3%), Chad (58.7%). None of them surprises me.
    • Next, which of the four areas — economics, politics, health, and education — has seen the least amount of growth globally over the past decade? Why do you think this is so?
    Politics. Our politics has been the same for over the past decade. One thing people hope for this area is stability. Political stability is the most important thing. I personally can’t imagine how there’s any growth in politics. Many people in politics are old men, with their conservative view of making money as politicians. If there are more women or more young people sitting at the seats of politics, probably, just probably, politics will change for the better.
    But if it’s regarding to gender parity, yes, politics has seen the least amount of growth. Because women still tend to think that politics is for men. Anyhow, politics is considered as a place to make money. Being a politician is a job. And a lot of women prefer their husband or son or the men in the family to become a politician. Although in Indonesia there are some women who strive to become female politician, very few of them actually get elected during the election. Society’s view of politics is still a stage for the men to shine, which explains why the growth of the gender parity in politics is really slow. There are great female politicians, such as Theresa May or Susi Pudjiastuti, but they are rare diamonds.
    • Finally, find the information for your country about those four areas. What is your comment about your country’s data?
    According to CNBC Indonesia, Indonesia’s economic growth is stagnant in 5% of growth.
    Politics is still stable. There are some turmoil, of course. Such as the demonstration by university students regarding problematic draft bill and Papua Wamena case, but it doesn’t prevent the presidential inauguration that took place Sunday, October 20.
    There are health problems during 2018-2019, of course. During early 2018, news of malnutrition and measles came from Asmat, Papua. 76 children died due to those health problems. The government even categorized this case directly in “Extraordinary Events (KLB)” and formed a special team that handled Asmat directly. Health access in the form of health facilities, medical personnel, and medicines that are far from the Asmat community and low education is the cause of malnutrition and measles is endemic in Asmat. Malnutrition is in fact a national problem which has not been resolved until now, even in big cities. These nutritional problems include stunting (short / dwarf), poor nutrition (malnutrition), and obesity (excess nutrition). Basic Health Research (Riskesdas), noted that in 2018 the Ministry of Health was only able to reduce the stunting rate from 37.2% to 30.8% over five years. Malnutrition did not decrease much, from 19.6% to only 17.6%. On the other hand, the obesity rate actually increased from 14.8% to 21.8%. Almost all non-infectious diseases experience an increase such as cancer, stroke, chronic kidney disorders, diabetes, and hypertension. Upper respiratory tract infections, malaria, diarrhea and tuberculosis have decreased the number of sufferers. However, many people still refuse vaccines to prevent infectious diseases. The polemic of the halal vaccines of Measles & Rubella (MR) and polio is one of the reason. Other notes such as the discovery of parasitic worms in canned mackerel products to harmful ingredients in cosmetics also deserve attention. In addition to physical health, mental illness jumped from 1.7 percent in 2013 to 7 percent in 2018.
    The education in Indonesia is quite good. According to the PISA (Program for International Student Assessment) report, Indonesia’s education ranks 62nd in the world in science, 63 in mathematics, and 64 in reading. Still below Singapore, Vietnam and Thailand. PISA itself is a survey that tests the ability of 15-year-old students in three fields, namely reading, mathematics, and science. This survey was initiated by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). In 2019, the government has launched an education budget of IDR492.5 trillion, with details of IDR163.1 trillion for the central area, IDR308, 4 trillion for other regions, and IDR21 trillion for financing. This budget grew by 11.4% compared to the 2018 budget. Primary school enrollment also keeps increasing.
    Comment: Indonesia is a developing countries with a bunch of problems waiting to be solved. I can’t actually give any comments about those data that I find. I just think that some things are getting worse, but a lot of things are getting better. Indonesia is walking, quite in the fast pace, towards something greater. The government is trying to solve the problems one by one. I just hope that the new government cabinet led by the elected President Jokowi can solve even more problems than his previous presidential term and I hope there are less problems under his reign and less stupid people that like to stir up troubles in Indonesia. One thing that I don’t like despite all the achievements he have in the last reign, is that I think more stupid and ignorant people becoming the politicians and part of people’s representative council. I desperately hope for a greater Indonesia and better politicians.

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  4. Challenge1)
    1. Japan Ratio girls/boys in school: 1.01, Age at first marriage: 28.6
    2. Niger at 17.6
    3. I can’t find that date.
    4. Jamaica
    5. I had not known about Jamaica so much, so I searched Jamaica for the internet. One website says 90% are single mothers and there is no concept of family. There are considered reasons for the oldest age of first marriage.

    Challenge2)
    1. I want to be an accountant. “accountants and auditors” 73%
    2. Biomedical engineer 100% There are no pay gap.
    3. Paper goods machine setters and operators 54% There are almost dabble pay gap.
    4. I think it is maybe dangerous and hard work so women can’t earn money as much as men.

    Challenge3)
    1. The countries banned all abortion: South Sudan, Holy see, Malta, Chili, Dominican Rep, El Salvador, Nicaragua
    2. Japan: Save life, physical health, Rape/incest, Economic/Social reasons
    3. 5 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births
    4. Central African Republic and Sierra Leone
    5. These poor standards of hygiene

    Challenge4)
    1. Iceland, Finland, Norway, Sweden, Rwanda
    2. Yes, Rwanda surprised me.
    3. Yemen, Pakistan, Syria, Saudi Arabia, Chad
    4. No.
    5. Politics
    6. Because of gender stereotypes. like “women are hysterical and weak more than men.”
    7. Japan: Economic 58%, Politics 10%, Health 97%, Education 99%
    I think health and education are pretty good. However, especially politics is not good for me who want to be an accountant. I will have some difficulty after the graduation.

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  5. “Challenge1”
    1. At the age of first marriage in Japan:28.6 years old, and in the ratio of girls/boys in school in Japan:1.01.
    2. Niger:17.6 years old
    3. 0.685
    4. Sweden:32.4 years old
    5. I think the reason is that Sweden is advancing women’s empowerment.

    “Challenge2”
    1. Social and human service assistants
    2. Counter attendants, cafeteria, food concession, and coffee shop
    3. Physicians and surgeons
    4. I think the reason is that physicians and surgeons are needed socially, and they have a heavy responsibility to save someone’s lives.

    “Challemge3”
    1. Nicaragua, South Sudan, Holy See, Malta, Chile, Dominican Republic, and El Salvador
    2. Save life, Physical health, Rape/incest, and Economic/social reasons
    3. 5(per 100,000 live births)
    4. Sierra Leone and Central African Republic:890
    5. I suppose that Pregnant women(girls) don’t have an safe environment that can have a baby and abort. In addition, there is a shortage of doctors and midwives as well as medical facility.

    “Challenge4”
    1. Iceland:87.4%, Finland:84.5%, Norway:84.2%, Sweden:81.6% , and Rwanda:80.0%
    2. European countries occupied 1st to 4th places, but 5th place located Africa.
    3. Yemen:51.6%, Pakistan:55.6%, Syria:56.7%, Saudi Arabia:58.3%, and Chad:58.7%
    4. In Saudi Arabia, there is a law women are banned from driving, but Saudi Arabia lifted the world’s only ban on women driving. So, women in Saudi Arabia are having more working oppourtunities.
    5. Japanese government has advanced women’s empowerment in the field of economics, politics, health and education. Especially, in the field of politics, there is fulfilling environment female legislators can childcare and nursing care, because childcare and nursing care leave for female legislators is yet to be understood for male legislators. As a result, Japan is not catching up with top countries. In the field of education, Japan have focused on eliminating the difference in scientific achievment between men and women.

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  6. Callange1
    1. Age at 1st marriage is 28.6 and Ratio girls/boys in school is 1.01.
    2. Niger
    3. 0.685
    4. Sweden
    5. I think government of Sweden is focusing on education support. So, boys and girls might receive education easily and cheaply.

    Callange2
    1. Tour and travel guide
    2. Biomedical engineers
    3. Paper goods machine setters and operators
    4. I don’t know about this job. I think there is more man who can use the machine than woman.

    Callange3
    1. Countries ban all abortion are South Sudan, Holy See, Chile, Dominican Republic,
    El Salvador, Nicaragua.
    2. Save life, physical health, Rape/incest, Economical/social reasons
    3. Central Africa Republic and Sierra Leone
    4. I think that almost pregnant woman in Central Africa Republic and Sierra Leone can’t go to medical institution because these countries hardly have it.

    Callange4
    1. Iceland, Finland, Norway, Sweden, Rwanda
    2. Yes. I surprised about Rwanda because this is a country of Africa.
    3. Yemen, Pakistan, Syria, Saudi Arabia, Ched
    4. All bottom countries are in the Middle East.
    5. Politics. Compered to other areas, the rate of Politics is low. I wonder it could grow more over the past decade. The change has been slow. Japan have good condition are education and medical. But, I think the weak point of Japan is also Politics. Most politicians are men. Woman are hard to get jobs with high income and status.

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  7. Challenge 1

    1.28.6
    2.Niger
    3.0.685
    4.Sweden
    5.In Sweden, an educational institution is substantial.
    In addition, an atmosphere of the society dose not want to do drawing of the gender.

    Challenge 2

    1. The smallest pay gap is counter attendants, cafeteria, food concession and coffee shop.
    2. The largest pay gap is physicians and surgeons.
    3. Because account for a percentage of doctors is men in Japan.

    Challenge 3

    1. Saving life, physical health, rape/incest and economic/social reasons
    2. 5
    3. Central African Republic and Sierra Leone 890
    4. I think it’s a missing sex education problem

    Challenge 4

    1. Iceland, Finland, Norway, Sweden and Rwanda
    2. Almost European countries
    3. Yemen, Pakistan, Syria, Saudi Arabia and Chad
    4. Almost located Middle East Asia
    5. Politics
    6. Because it is said women are weaker than men.
    7. I think Japanese politics being more and more danger about right of collective self-defense. Japanese government have to think how danger it is.

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  8. Challenge1
    ・Age at 1st marrige is 28.6 years old. And Ratio girls and boys in school is 1.01.
    ・It is Nige.
    ・Ratio girls are 0.7%
    ・It is Sweden.
    ・Because this country protect women’s rights.

    Challenge2
    ・I want to be a teacher.
    Teacers earn 93% of their male coouter parts on average.
    ・Counselars and industrial truck and tractor operators.
    ・Physicians and surgeons.
    ・Because phycisians and surgeons are very difficult job. Womens usually has maternity leave.
    Therfore they are difficult to keep heavy job.

    Challenge3
    ・South Sudan, Holysee, Malta, Chile, Dominikan Rep, Elsaivador, and Nicaragua.
    ・Japan permitted 4 situation. First save life. Next save physical health. Then harm to one’s health by economic. Lastly child bearing by rape and assault.
    ・5 per 100,000 live births.
    ・Central Afrian Rep and Sierra Leone.
    ・These country hasn’t really advanced medical treatment.

    Challenge4
    ・Ice land, Finland, Norway, Sweden, Rwanda.
    ・I surprised that Ruwanda. Because Rwanda is Africa area.
    ・Yemen, Pakistan, Syria, Saudi Arabia, Chad.
    ・I surprised that these countries are middle east.
    ・Politics.
    ・Because many countries belong few women in tha diet. Forexample Japan,China,Korea,Thailand and so on.
    ・Japan should eliminate a political gap.Women politicians are very few. It is a big problem.
    Japanese politicians consist of man. It means that women’s opinion is not reflection.This situation is very serious. I think that Japan should adopt quarter system.This system is tha diet adoption a certain number womens.In this way we should decreace gender gap.

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  9. Challenge 1
    1. For Indonesia, the age at 1st marriage is at 22,1 and the ratio girls or boys in school is about 0,975
    2. The country which has the earliest first marriage is Niger, the age at 1st marriage is 17,6 and the ratio girls or boys in school is about 0.685
    3. Around 15 years old and above
    4. Country has the oldest age of first marriage is Sweden, the age at 1st marriage is at 32,4 and the ratio girls or boys in school is about 0.996
    5. Because Sweden is the modern and liberalism country,, where there has no social pressure to get married and sex outside of marriage is 100% accepted and also Sweden is not religious country.
    Challenge 2
    1. Marketing and Sales managers, the pay gap in field is 67% of their male counterparts on average . The median earnings by occupation men $97,171 and women $64,816.
    2. The field have the smallest pay gap is Dietitians and Nutritionist about 101.0% of their male counterparts on average. The median earnings women $50.142 and men $ 49.536
    3. The fields have the largest is Physicians and Surgeons, the pay gap in field is 64% of their male counterparts on average and the median earnings by occupation men $209.596 and women $135.169.
    4. This situation is happen because it still based on gender role and social construction, where like Dietitians and Nutritionist is identic with women and the Physicians and Surgeons is identic with men.

    Challenge 3
    1. Abortion permitted in Indonesia are save Life, Rape/Incest, Foetal Impairment
    2. Maternal Mortality Rate in 2010 in 220 “Maternal Mortality Rate
    3. The countries that have highest Maternal Mortality Rate are Sierra Leone and Centra African Rep. About 890
    4. It because, in Sierra Leone and Centra African Rep are banned or illegal to have the abortion, so it make the number of unsafe of women is increase that might cause many death.
    Challenge 4
    1. Top 5 ranked
    – Iceland 87,4%
    – Finlad 84,5%
    – Norway 84,2%
    – Sweden 81,6%
    – Rwanda 80,0%
    2. Not suprise, because the country in the top 5 ranked is mostly countries which already modern and not follow the custom / culture, and that countries not religious country.
    3. Bottom 5 ranked
    – Yemen 51,6%
    – Pakistan 55,6%
    – Syria 56,7%
    – Saudia Arabia 58,3%
    – Chad 58,7%
    4. Also not suprises, it also mostly Asian Countries which in Asian countries they religious country still hold the custom or strong culture which that women should not join the education.
    5. In Indonesia
    – Economic : 60%
    – Political : 17,1%
    – Health : 98%
    – Education : 98%
    6. Indonesia still need more women role in political and economic field.

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  10. Challenge 1 (Gender Equality in Schools Decreases Child Marriage)
    – Indonesia age first marriage: 22.1 and ratio boys/girls in school: 0.975
    – Earliest first marriage country: Niger, at 17.6
    – Only 8% join secondary school and 31% in primary school
    – Sweden 32.4 and 0.996
    – People in Sweden more focus on reaching dream before get married. Have high education and good career are the priority. And also they think couples are become partnership and not always to get married.

    Challenge 2 (What’s Your Pay Gap?)
    – Advertising and promotion managers = 74%
    – Smallest Pay Gap: Dietitians and nutritionsts (101.0%)
    – Largest: Physicians and surgeons (64%)
    – Explaination: The pay is based on gender role. Women has lack of skill to work in high-paid job such as surgeons. And typically, the type of work that women do is in low-paid job.

    Challenge 3 (Abortion Rights Around the World)
    – Abortion permitted in Indonesia: Save Life, Rape/Incest, Foetal Impairment.
    – “Maternal Mortality Rate” Indonesia 2010: 220
    – Highest “Maternal Mortality Rate” country: Sierra Leone and central African Republic = 890
    – Explaination: because of the country’s laws that just permitted abortion for save life, some women do unsafe abortion which is dengerous. And during pregnancy, there’s inequalities in access to quality health services that caused lifetime risk of death due to pregnancy is higher

    Challenge 4 (How Nations Stack Up on Gender Equality)
    – The top five countries:
    1. Iceland: 87.4%
    2. Finland: 84.5%
    3. Norway: 84.2%
    4. Sweden: 81.6%
    5. Rwanda: 80.0%
    – The bottom five countries:
    1. Yemen: 51.6%
    2. Pakistan: 55.6%
    3. Syria: 56.7%
    4. Saudi Arabia: 58.3%
    5. Chad: 58.7%
    – The least amount is Political 16.5%
    – I think the inequality happens because of to social norms, differences of education levels, and cultural factors. In certain country, women not allowed to take part of something even she can do it.
    – Four areas of Indonesia:
    1. Economic: 60%
    2. Political: 17.1%
    3. Health: 98%
    4. Education: 98%
    – Comment: Indonesia still need the equality of women role in politics. Government must create more policies to support the women empowerment to be involved. It can efforts to be close the gender equality.

    Like

  11. Challenge1)
    ・Japan,28.6
    ・Niger,17.6
    ・Concerning Niger
    Preprimary education, duration〔years〕: 3
    Primary education, duration〔years〕:6
    Secondly education, duration〔years〕:7
    ・Sweden,32.4
    ・I think that Sweden has more opportunities of advancement in society.

    Challenge2)
    ・management analysis,80% (men: $90,691 women: $72,231)
    ・industrial truck and tractor operators,99% (men: $31,894 women: $31,411)
    ・Paper goods machine setters and operators,54% (men: $46,975 women: $25.576)
    ・In general, men tend to do dangerous job than women, I think.

    Challenge3)
    ・South Sudan, Holy See, Malta, Chile, Dominican Rep., El Salvador, Nicaragua
    ・Save life, Physical health, Rape/incent, Economic/social reasons (Japan)
    ・5
    ・Central African Rep. Sierra Leone (890)
    ・Not only these countries, but also African countries is show high Maternal mortality rate. I think that low standard of medical care lead to this circumstance.

    Challenge4)
    ・Iceland, Finland, Norway, Sweden, Rwanda.
    ・Rwanda’s ranking as 5th was unexpected.
    ・Yemen, Pakistan, Syria, Saudi Arabia, Chad
    ・No surprise.
    ・Politics
    ・Political system still has remained situation that there are many men.
    ・Regarding my country date, especially politics’ date is very low. It must be improved. But, the road to improve is long, I think.

    Like

  12. Challenge1
    1.The first marriage of Japan is 28.6 years old.
    2.Niger
    3.1.52 years.
    4.Sweden
    5.Because the medical technology of Sweden was not so developed in 2005.
    Challenge2
    1.Women working as travel agents earn 89% of their male counterparts on average.
    2.Food service.
    3.Physicians and surgeons.
    4.I think that women who are physicians and surgeons are difficult to continue their jobs, because they need to take childcare leave.
    Challenge3
    1.South Sudan, Holy See, Malta, Chile, and Dominican Rep..
    2.Physical health, Save life, Rape/incest, and Economic/social reasons.
    3.0.00005%
    4.Central African Rep. and Sierra Leone.
    5.I think that people live in the countries are so poor that they can’t have medical treatment.
    Challenge4
    1.Iceland, Finland, Norway, Sweden, and Rwanda.
    2.No, I don’t.
    3.Yemen, Pakistan, Syria, Sandi Arabia, and Chad.
    4.Nothing.
    5.Politics.
    6.Because I think that a lot of disputes continue now.
    7.I think that Japan is a developed country, but there are still large gap between men and women.

    Like

  13. (Challenge 1)
    1: 28.6 percent at the age of 1st marriage and 1.01 percent in the racio of girls/boys in school.
    2: Niger.
    3: 0.685
    4: Sweden.
    5: I think Swedish people don’t great emphasis on marriage.Actually,there are a lot of people who choose common-law marriage in Sweden because individual can get subsidies from the government.

    (Challenge 2)
    1: Dishwashers.
    2: Physicians and surgeons.
    3: There are many reasons of gender pay gap.According to NewYork Times,when women enter male-dominated industry, the wage of the industry decreases because women aren’t rated as well as men basically.Also,one survey shows that gender pay gap occurs when women take care of their children.

    (Challenge 3)
    1: Malta,Chile,Dominican Republic,Nicaragua,El salvador,South Sudan,Holly see.
    2: Save a life,Physical Health,Rape/incest,Economic/social reason.
    3: 5 per 100,000 live birth.
    4: Sierra Leone and The central African Republic.
    5: I suppose that these countries don’t have any medical facilities where women can get appropriate treatment, so the number of women who die from such a thing increases.

    (Challenge 4)
    1: Iceland,Finland,Norway,Sweden,Rwanda.
    2: Yes. The ranking of Rwanda surprised me because other countries locate in Europe.
    3: Yemen,Pakistan,Syiria,Saudi Arabia,Chad.
    4: No.
    5: Politics.
    6: I think that to improve the growth of politics area is difficult. The reason why I think is politics is unstable in many countries.

    7: I focus on the field of politics.In contemporary Japanese politics, it is far from gender equality.
    When we pay attention to members of assembly,they are most of men. This is not only members of assembly,the prime minister and other politican as well. The field of japanese politics is occupied by men most times. Therefore, the ranking of japanese politics will not go up unless we achive gender equality.

    Like

    1. Challenge1
      1.Ratio of girls/boys in school does not change much within the years, but the age at 1st marriage changes from 24.6 to 28.6.
      2. Niger 17.6
      3. 1.52years
      4.Sweden 32.4
      5.According to the data, you can see that a lot of women who go to school have jobs. In that the education level is high in Sweden, I guess a lot of women work without getting married for a while until 30. Or, maybe it is because the environment for women workers are properly prepared so that elder women do not have to be concerned of taking care of childeren while working in their career.

      Challenge2
      1.Biological scientists; 95% of men’s payment THe gap is around $3,186.
      2.Food service 99% of men’s payment
      3.Physicians and surgeons
      4.I think it is because a lot of men have done this job until now that men tend to do it. So, it is hard for women to achieve the same salary because there are obstacles in achieving the job.

      Challenge3
      1.South Sudan, Malta, Holy See, Chile, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Nicaragua
      2.Save life, Physical health, Rape/incest, Economic/social reasons
      3.5per 100,000 live birth
      4.Central African Republic and Sierra Leone
      5.I suppose because of the low medical technology level and the lack of doctors in the african continent.

      Challenge4
      1.Iceland, Finland, Norway, Sweden, Rwanda
      2.Yes, I was surprised that Rwanda ranked in the top 5 countries because I didn’t expect to see a non-europe country in the top chart.
      3.Yemen, Pakistan, Syria, Saudi Arabia, Chad
      4.I thought that a lot of African countries were going to be on the chart.
      5.Politics
      6.I think it is because a lot of people think it is the mens role to lead and stand in front of people as politicans. Also, it is because few women learn politics nowadays even though the number of them have grew.
      7.Economics:58% Politics:10% Health:98% Education:99%
      8.I am surprised that we are doing a good job in the Health and Education area. As for politics, Japanese have to improve society to support women who stand as politicans and lead. The sterotype of women standing 3 steps behind men is late. We have to acheive gender equality in this area as soon as possible because it is a very important area that makes a country that country.

      Like

  14. Callenge1

    1.Age at first marriage is 28.6 in my country
    2.Niger
    3.It is 1.52
    4.Jamaica
    5.Maybe,people in Jamaica think narrige at 20’s is too early

    Callenge2

    1.social wokers
    2.biomedical engineers
    3.physicans and surgeons
    4.This situation makes women not want to be a doctor.In result,pay gap will never cease.

    Callenge3

    1.El Salvador,Ni caragura,Chili,Dominica.Rep,Holy see,Malta
    2.Abotions permmited that the reasons are save life,physical health,Rape/incest,economic/social resons in
    Japan
    3.It is 5
    4.Sierra Leone
    5.There is not enough medical equipment and peaple who help to give birth.

    Callenge4

    1.1st.Iceland
    2nd.Finland
    3rd.Norway
    4th.Sweden
    5th.Rwanda

    2.1st to 4th country is not especially surprising.b But I surprised Rwanda is 5th
    3.1st.Yemen
    2nd.Pakistan
    3rd.Syria
    4th.Saudi Arabia
    5th.Chad
    4.I surprised the bottom 5 ranked countries is Islamic country
    5.Political
    6.I think many people think politics is a man’s job.
    7.(Japan in 2016)
    Economic:58
    Political:10
    Health:98
    Education:99
    8.Four areas data about Japan almost uncanged.

    Like

  15. 1. Gender Equality in Schools Decreases Child Marriage

    Challenge1
    ・In Japan, Age at first marriage is 28.6 and ratio girls/boys in school is 1.01 in 2005.
    ・0.685
    ・Sweden
    ・Because the gender equality of Swedish society is greatly involved. And, for Swedish people , marriage may not have any special meaning and significance.

    2. What’s Your Pay Gap?

    Challenge2
    ・tour and travel guide
    ・Smallest pay gap: biomedical engineers(100%)
    ・Largest pay gap: paper goods machine setters and operators(54%)
    ・This work requires the power of men, I think.

    3. Abortion Rights Around the World

    Challenge3
    ・South Sudan, Holy See, Malta, Chile, Dominican Rep. , El Salvador, Nicaragua
    ・Save life, Physical health, Rape/incest, Economic/social reasons(Japan)
    ・5(per 100,000 live births)
    ・Central Africa Republic, Sierra Leone
    ・I suppose that pregnant women can’t give birth in a well-organized environment.
    Moreover, I guess medical technology isn’t developed.

    4. How Nations Stack Up on Gender Equality

    Challenge4
    ・Iceland(87.4%), Finland(84.5%), Norway(84.2%), Sweden(81.6%), Rwanda(80.0%)
    ・Rwanda, because it is the only African country.
    ・Yemen, Pakistan, Syria, Saudi Arabia, Chad
    ・I surprised about all bottom countries are Middle East.
    ・The least amount is Political.(16.5%)
    ・In politics, men tend to be stronger than women.
    ・In Japan, politics date is low. I think women should be more active in political participation. And, we must remove the fixed concept that men take power.
    On the other hand, education and health date is high. My country’s medical technology is developing. In education, we are also focusing on subjects other than five subjects.
    Therefore, there are still many challenges, but it can be said that Japan is fulfilling.

    Like

  16. Challenge 1
    – Japan’s data
    Ratio boys/girls in school : 1.01%
    Age of first marriage : 28.6 years old
    – Niger‐17.6years old
    – 0.685%
    – Sweden : Because women can get ahead in society easier compared to other countries in Sweden, so they can get jobs, and be able to success as men do.

    Challenge 2
    -Public relations and fundraising managers
    Men: $92,394 Women: $71,500
    -Smallest gap: biomedical engineer, meter reader
    I think this is because the number of women in these fields are small, so they are in great demands.
    -Largest gap: financial specialist, surgeon
    I think this is because it’ thought that women’s tasks are not achieved by theirselves.

    Challenge 3
    -South Sudan, Holy see, Malta, Chile, Dominica Rep, El Salvador and Nicaragua
    -Save life, Physical health, Rape/incest and Economic/Social reason.
    -5
    -Central African Rep and Sierra Leone: 890 per 100,000 birth
    Medical works are not developed.
    In these 2 countries, few circumstances are acceptable for abortions, so I think some women die because of unhoped pregnancy.

    Challenge 4
    -Top 5: Iceland, Finland, Norway, Sweden and Rwanda.
    I surprised with Rwanda. I thought Rwanda is a poor country, and gender equality are not developed like other countries in Africa.
    -Bottom 5: Yemen, Pakistan, Syria, Saudi Arabia and Chad
    I didn’t surprise because these countries are serious Islamic countries.
    -Politics
    -There are still few women in Japanese cabinet every time. People have image that politician should be men
    -Economic: it went up once, but it went down again to around 58% in 2016.
    Politics: around 10%
    Health: 98%
    Education: almost 100%
    As I mentioned before, gender equality in politics field is not developed until now. I wonder how countries of north Europe achieved this problem.
    I also wonder in what situation the education is not equal in japan.

    Like

  17. Challenge 1
    What is the data for your country?
    Japan
    Age at women’s first marriage is 28.6 years old.
    Ratio girls/boys in school is almost 1 from 1971 to 2005.

    Which country has the earliest first marriage?
    Nigel at 17.6 years old

    How many years of schooling do young women in that country receive? Which country has the oldest age of first marriage?
    0.685
    Sweden at 32.4 years old

    Why do you think that is?
    It could be seen that the age of first marriage of women in developed countries tends to be high, and the age of first marriage of women tends to be low in developing countries.
    I think that if more women work in society, they will not be able to spend time on pregnancy and child-rearing.

    Challenge 2
    Use the graph to find the pay gap in the field (or similar field) to the one you hope to enter after graduation.
    Women working as a Biological scientist earn 95% of their male counterparts on average.
    Median earnings by occupation
    Men $60,744 and Women $57,558.

    Which fields have the smallest pay gap?
    Biomedical engineers.

    Which fields have the largest?
    Paper goods machine setters and operators.

    What could explain this situation?
    Long-term training and knowledge-requiring jobs have a small income gap between women and men.
    Challenge 3
    Using the chart, find which countries ban all abortion. Then, find out information about your country. Under what circumstances is abortion permitted in your country?
    Sudan, Holy See, Malta, Chile, Dominican Republic, El Salvador, Nicaragua.
    Japan permit abortion under save life, physical health, rape/incest, and economical/social reasons circumstances

    What was the “Maternal Mortality Rate” in your country in 2010?
    5 per 100,000 live births.

    Which countries have the highest “Maternal Mortality Rate”? What might explain this?
    The Central African Republic and Sierra Leone.
    Maternal mortality in Africa is very high compared to Asia, Europe, the Americas, and Oceania, and GDP in the Central African Republic and Sierra Leone is low.
    Therefore, the country’s GDP and education level are considered to be the maternal mortality rate.

    Challenge 4
    Which are the top five countries overall? Do any of them surprise you?
    How about the bottom five? Any surprises? Next, which of the four areas — economics, politics, health, and education — has seen the least amount of growth globally over the past decade? Why do you think this is so? Finally, find the information for your country about those four areas.
    The top 5 ranked countries in 2016 were
    1.Iceland87.4%
    2.Finland84.5%
    3.Norway 84.2%
    4.Sweden 81.6%
    5.Rwanda 80.0%
    Most of the top five countries are developed countries, and these countries are in Northern Europe, but I was surprised that Rwanda, which is not a developed country, was ranked in the top five.

    the bottom 5 were
    1.Yemen 51.6%
    2.Pakistan 55.6%
    3.Syria 56.7%
    4.Saudi Arabia58.3%
    5.Chad 58.7%
    I thought that many Middle Eastern countries were in the lower five countries and that religious problems led to inequalities between men and women.
    Looking at the score in japan economic 0.618, educational 0.978, health and survival 0.979, political empowerment 0.058.

    What is your comment about your country’s data?
    The Japanese cabinet has an overwhelmingly small number of women. In fact, there has never been a female prime minister in Japan. So, firstly, increase the number of women active in the field of politics, and if the number of women active in the Japanese population increases, I think that the Japanese economy will improve.

    Like

  18. Challenge 1
    Japan’s ratio girls/boys in school isn’t changing from 1.01, but age of first marriage is gradually increase and in 2005, became 28.6.
    The country has the earliest first marriage is Niger, the age is 17.6. And average years of schooling for women who is 15 to 24 in 2005 is 1.52.
    The country has the oldest age of first marriage is Jamaica. I can’t say for sure but according to the information I searched Internet, Jamaican people consider marriage more carefully. People except high classes usually marry after living together, having some children and saving enough money. So first marriage age becoming high.

    Challenge 2
    There is a tend to large gap pay in occupation required highly education like medical job and financial agent. On the other hand, simple job workers such as dishwashers or attendants can gain equal payment. I think it would be related women lifestyle after marriage. Occupation required highly education often goes with big responsibility such as having a client. So this kind of job needs long and stability work. But present circumstance, lot of women have more possibility that go on maternity leave or childcare leave than men. I suppose that is the reason of pay gap in high level occupation.

    Challenge 3
    Countries which ban all abortion is Holy See, Malta, Chile, Dominican republic, El Salvador and Nicaragua.
    Abortion permitted in Japan is for save life, physical health, rape/incest and economic/social reasons. And the material mortality rate in Japan in 2010 is 5.
    Countries which have the highest material mortality rate is both Central African republic and Sierra Leone. I think it’s because those countries don’t have enough obstetrician clinic or people consider that don’t have to go to hospital when giving birth.

    Challenge 4
    The top five countries are Iceland, Finland, Norway, Sweden and Rwanda. I was surprised at Rwanda. Because Rwanda is located in the Africa and close countries like Uganda or Tanzania’s score is much lower.
    The bottom five countries are Yemen, Pakistan, Syria, Saudi Arabia and Chad. I was surprised at Syria’s score had decreased in 2016 from 2006.
    I think the least amount of growth globally area is politics. According to the number, it has lot of growth that 10.7 to 16.5, but this number is too low compared with other areas. And still there are countries which has almost 0% score in 2016.
    First of all, Japan’s gender gap index is about 65%. I think it means basic areas such as health and education has a enough score, however the score necessary for women’s energetic work like economic and politics are low. I think the circumstance of few women politician lead to the inactive discussion about women problem. But I also think there is not many women want to be a politician in Japan.

    Like

  19. Challenge1
    1.In2005,age at 1st marriage is about 28.3 and ratio girls/boys in school is 1.01.
    2.Niger
    3.0.685
    4.Sweden
    5.I think women of Sweden can receive the right of studing,so they work for a long time.In addition the goverment of Sweden has strong social security.

    Challenge2
    1.Speech-language pathologist
    2.Biomedical engineers
    3.Physicians and surgeons
    4.I think physicians and surgeons treat human heaith,so this job is very responsible.Maybe because men are more valuable than women.

    Challenge3
    1.South Sudan, Holysee, Malta, Chili, Dominican Republich, El Salvador, Nicaragua
    2.Save life, Physical health, Rape/incest, Economic/Social reasons
    3.5
    4.890
    5.Low ability of midwifery technology.

    Challenge4
    1.Iceland, Finland, Norway, Sweden, Rwanda
    2.Rwanda is located in Africa and not very rich, so I was surprised.
    3.Yemen, Pakistan, Syria, Saudi Arabia, Chad
    4.Political
    Because political mecanism varies from country to country.For example, England has Parliamentary cabinet system while America has Presidential system.
    5.Compared to Japan and other countries, Health and Education are very high numerics. But Japan has politics gap. Women’s idea are’nt particularly bad, but men’s opinions tended to be more important than women’s. I think this gap shouid be eliminated as soon as possible.

    Like

  20. Challenge1
    1.28.6 years old
    2.Niger(17.6 years old)
    3. 1.52 years
    4,Sweden (32.4 years old)
    5. Because many Sweden woman work in society.

    Challenge2
    1.Biomedical engineers(100%)
    2.Paper gods machine setters and operators(54%)
    3.Jobs with high social status have gender equality, but jobs with low social status don’t have it.

    Challenge3
    1.South Sudan, Holy See, Melta, Chile, Dominica Rep., El Salvador,Nicaragra
    2.Save life, physical health, rape/incest, economic/ social reasons
    3.Maternal Mortality Rate is 5 per 100,000 live rirths in Japan in 2010.
    4.Central African Rep. and Sierra Leone
    5.Those countries don’t have enough institution to protect woman’s life.

    Callenge4
    1.1.Iceland 2.Finland 3.Norway 4.Sweden 5.Rwanda
    2.Yes.I am surprised by the data of Rwanda.
    3.1.Yamen 2.Pakistan 3.Syria 4.Sandi Arabia 5.Chad
    I am not surprised by the bottom five.
    4.Politics
    5.Because Japanese Cabinet has few female lawmakers.So, a lot of countries may run into a same situation.
    6.Economic Participation and Opportunity,2016 Gender Equality:about 58%
    Polotical Empowerment,2016 Gender Equality:10%
    Health and Survival,2016 Gender Equality:about 97%
    Education Attainment,2016 Gender Equality:99%

    Like

    1. Challenge1
      1.28.6 years old
      2.Niger(17.6 years old)
      3. 1.52 years
      4.Sweden (32.4 years old)
      5. Because many Sweden woman work in society.

      Challenge2
      1.Biomedical engineers(100%)
      2.Paper gods machine setters and operators(54%)
      3.Jobs with high social status have gender equality, but jobs with low social status don’t have it.

      Challenge3
      1.South Sudan, Holy See, Melta, Chile, Dominica Rep., El Salvador,Nicaragra
      2.Save life, physical health, rape/incest, economic/ social reasons
      3.Maternal Mortality Rate is 5 per 100,000 live rirths in Japan in 2010.
      4.Central African Rep. and Sierra Leone
      5.Those countries don’t have enough institution to protect woman’s life.

      Callenge4
      1.1.Iceland 2.Finland 3.Norway 4.Sweden 5.Rwanda
      2.Yes.I am surprised by the data of Rwanda.
      3.1.Yamen 2.Pakistan 3.Syria 4.Sandi Arabia 5.Chad
      I am not surprised by the bottom five.
      4.Politics
      5.Because Japanese Cabinet has few female lawmakers.So, a lot of countries may run into a same situation.
      6.Economic Participation and Opportunity,2016 Gender Equality:about 58%
      Polotical Empowerment,2016 Gender Equality:10%
      Health and Survival,2016 Gender Equality:about 97%
      Education Attainment,2016 Gender Equality:99%
      7. I think the politics data is very bad. The data is lower than median. The Japanese government should increase the number of female lawmakers and take in their opinions.

      Like

  21. Challenge 1
    1.1.01,28.6
    2.Nigbr
    3.
    4.Sweden

    Challenge 2
    1.Biomedical engineers have the smallest pay gap.
    2.Physicians and surgeons have the largest pay gap.

    Challenge 3
    1.South Sudan
    2.Save life,Physical health,Rape/insect and Economical social reasons.
    3.5%
    4.Estonia
    5.In Estonia,women’s right is protected.

    Challenge 4
    1. 1.Iceland 2.Finland 3.Norway 4.Sweden 5.Rwanda
    2. 1.Yemen 2.Pakistan 3.Syria 4.Saudi Arabia 5.Chad
    3.Political

    Like

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